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Green building rating systems around the globe have incorporated Design for Flexibility/Adaptability and Design for Disassembly language.
The following links provide information on rating systems that incorporate lifecycle building.
Leadership, Education, and Innovation: LE13.2 Design for Adaptability, Durability and Disassembly
LE3.2: Design for Adaptability, Durability and Disassembly
Intent: Reduce building material waste and promote local building material reuse during construction, renovation, repurposing of space, and disassembly. Provide spaces that are adaptable, durable, and flexible. Drive innovation in designing schools to support disassembly and reuse.
Construction, renovation and demolition waste comprises 30-40% of all solid waste in the US each year (22% in California), and 60% of the material resources that flow through the US economy annually (excluding food and fuel) are consumed by the built environment. (U.S. EPA and USGS) These figures are of particular concern because the average age of a school building in the U.S. is 40 years, and most schools are typically demolished by the age of 60 (NCER, 2000). In addition, school owners may spend up to three times the cost of the original construction in repairs, renovations and demolition over a school’s lifespan. (Brand, 1994) Designing for adaptability and disassembly will allow schools to economically act as stocks of materials for future buildings with minimal to zero loss of the materials during renovations and disassembly. As a by-product of this design concept, schools will be more adaptable and will extend the lives of their materials through whole building flexibility.
LEI3.2.1, Provide the school owner, builder and records management systems with a Disassembly Plan that has the method of disassembly of major systems during renovations and end-of-life, and the properties of major materials and components. At minimum the plan should include:
- An explanation of reusable, recyclable, and durable component and material selections.
- An explanation of modular components and dimensions and plug-and-play components for
- A plan for major component repairs and replacements, potential conversions, and end-of-life
- A complete set of as-built drawings if different than design drawings.
- An inventory of chemical and mechanical properties as appropriate, ratings and warranties,
manufacturer name and date and production.
- A description of strategies to minimize the use of coatings and composites.
- A plan to allow for movement of workers and equipment in the deconstruction phase.
LEI3.2.2, Design major systems with differing functions and lifespans to promote disentanglement. Comply with two of the following to receive credit:
- Separation of envelope from structure.
- Dedicated service voids (cores, chases, tracks, raceways).
- Separation of interior spatial plan from structure.
- Separation of finishes from substrate associated with spatial plan, structure or weather
Goal: Encourage innovation in high performance school design. LEI3.2.3 Provide access to and types of connections that allow disassembly. To receive credit choose one major system (roof or HVAC) and provide:
- Visible and/or ergonomic connections.
- Human scale components and use of industry standard connectors and tools / equipment
that are trade-friendly.
- Minimize number and different types of connectors over whole building.
- Use of reversible connections (screws, bolts, nails, clips).
LEI3.2.1, Develop a comprehensive Disassembly Plan that incorporates design for disassembly, durability, and adaptability principles. Even the best design for adaptability and disassembly will not be realized if the building constructors, operators, and deconstructors do not understand how to implement the disassembly processes as they were intended. Therefore, an important element of the design process is the documentation and dissemination of the building’s design intent per its materials, components, connections and form. The Disassembly Plan should also be updated to mitigate the deconstructor’s need to “start from scratch” to understand the building. Include in specifications and contractor agreement language that stipulates development of as-built drawings and materials inventory of major systems. A successful Disassembly Plan should include:
- Statement of strategy for design for disassembly and adaptability relating to the building
- Demonstrate the strategy behind the designed re-usable elements and describe best practice to ensure they are handled in a way which preserves maximum reusability.
- Building elements
- Provide an inventory of all materials and components used in the project together with specifications (including Material Safety Data Sheets as applicable) and all warranties, including manufacturers’ details and contacts.
- Describe the design life and/or service life of materials and components.
- Explain reusable, recyclable, and durable component and material selections that facilitate adaptability, disassembly, reuse, and recycling.
- Describe modular components and dimensions and plug and play components for major systems.
- Identify best options for reuse, reclamation, recycling for all building elements. This may change between time of construction and time of disassembly so the Plan should be updated.
- Provide instructions on how to deconstruct elements
- Provide up-to-date plans for identifying information on how to adapt and deconstruct the school.
- Where necessary add additional information to the “as built” set of drawings to demonstrate the optimum technique for removal of specific elements.
- Describe the equipment required to dismantle the building, the sequential processes involved and the implications for health and safety as part of the management requirements.
- Advise the future contractors on the best means of categorizing, recording and storing dismantled elements.
- Distribution of Disassembly Plan
Materials & Resources: 7.1 Resource Use: Design for Flexibility
Conserve resources associated with the construction and management of buildings by designing for durability, flexibility and ease of future adaptation, and maximizing life of constituent components and assemblies.
Health care facilities undergo substantial renovation and remodeling to accommodate changing technologies and regulatory requirements, thereby generating significant quantities of construction-related wastes, and subjecting building occupants to noise, dust, and other health impacting disruptions associated with construction. By designing durable, flexible, adaptive, generic spaces, buildings can better respond to changes imposed by new equipment and infrastructure requirements with minimum waste and maintain a healthier environment during renovations.
Increase building flexibility and ease of adaptive reuse over the life of the structure by employing three (3) or more of the following design and/or space planning strategies:
- Use of interstitial space serving for a minimum 20% of project diagnostic & treatment or other clinical floor area (calculation based on DGSF). Provide 'zonal service distribution systems' for electrical, information technology (IT), communication, medical gases, and sprinklers in all clinical spaces. (Inpatient units are excluded from this calculation.)
- Provide programmed 'soft space' (such as administration/storage) equal to a minimum of 5% of total clinical space. Locate ‘soft space’ adjacent to clinical departments that anticipate growth. Determine strategy for future accommodation of displaced ‘soft space’ (calculation based on project DGSF).
- Construct ‘soft space’ with movable or demountable partition systems, or use movable or demountable walls for a minimum of 20% of interior partitions (calculation based on LF of partition); inpatient units may be excluded from this calculation.
- Locate 'shelled space' equal to a minimum of 5% of total project departmental clinical space, where it can be occupied without displacing occupied space (calculation based on project DGSF).
- Identify horizontal expansion capacity equal to a minimum of 30% of diagnostic and treatment or other clinical space accessible without demolition of occupied space (other than at the connection point of future expansion). Reconfiguration of additional existing occupied space that has been constructed with movable partition systems is permitted. (Calculation based on project DGSFInpatient units are excluded).
- Design for future vertical expansion on a minimum of 75% of roof, ensuring minimal disruption to existing operations and service systems.
- Designate location(s) for future above-grade parking structure(s) equal to 50% of existing ongrade parking capacity, with direct access to the main hospital lobby/ circulation/ vertical transportation pathways.
- Design on a modular planning grid based upon material size modules to reduce waste and increase flexibility. Use movable/modular casework for a minimum of 50% of casework and custom millwork. (Calculation is based upon the combined value of the two elements, as determined by the Cost Estimator or Constructor.).
Compile evidence of strategies employed to improve ease of adaptive reuse of the structure in future
expansion, renovations, including floor plans, building sections, or modular technology technical data.
There is no reference standard for this credit.
Potential Technologies & Strategies
Flexible, adaptable and generic spaces increase building longevity. Strategies for achieving this include:
- Right size the space program, insuring that space assignments are optimized through considering multiple uses for individual spaces, alternative officing (whereby unassigned, flexible workstations are shared by multiple users), and universal sizing (standardized room or workstation sizing).
- Dimensional planning to recognize standard material sizes – wherever possible, design rooms using 2-foot incremental dimensions. An 8’ x 11’-6” room creates less waste than a 7’-6” x 11’-4” dimension.
- On large-scale projects, use repetitive elements throughout the design. Redundant dimensions facilitates cutting in large batches in a single location, which in turn facilitates recycling and efficient disposal of cutoffs.
- Plan for future adaptability, including ample floor-to-floor heights, raised floor distribution systems or interstitial space to allow for ease of future modifications, implementation of undifferentiated “technology floors” to accommodate surgical, cardiology and radiological procedures in equally sized and adaptable planning modules.
- Locating shell or ‘soft space’ adjacent to major clinical areas (such as radiology, surgery, etc) allows for ease of expansion rather than early obsolescence. Determine which programs are likely to require such expansion and locate shell or soft space to permit this needed expansion without major disruption or reconfiguration of existing, operational space.
- Consider components that can be removed and reused in future reconfigurations or may be salvaged for future renovations.
- Plan corridor systems and exit stairways to support future building additions such that demolition of occupied space will not be required. This will cause less disruption during future construction as well as reduce waste from demolition.
- Adopt acuity adaptable and universal patient room concepts to both enhance patient care quality and reduce the probability of need for future change.
- Consider ease of installation and deconstruction, including modular, demountable building systems that can be relocated, reused, or salvaged in the future. Detailing for easy disassembly by using screws and bolts in place of nails and adhesives will reduce future renovation costs.
- Employ design strategies to reduce the use of materials, such as exposed ceilings, concrete floors, and exposed structural framework.
- Designing With Vision: A Technical Manual for Material Choices in Sustainable Construction, Chapter 8, California Integrated Waste Management Board, July, 2000
- New York City High Performance Building Guidelines, Dept. of Design and Construction, 1999
Resources: E.4 - Building durability, adaptability and disassembly
To extend the life of a building and its components, and to conserve resources by minimizing the need to replace materials and assemblies.
- Specify durable and low-maintenance building materials and assemblies that can withstand the following: sunlight, temperature and humidity changes; condensation; and wear-and-tear associated with the amount and type of traffic expected.
- Implement a building design that promotes building adaptability.
- Specify fastening systems that allow for easy disassembly.